Herald of

A male as an incomplete female: a plot from the history of feminism

Dushenko K.V.


The statement «The woman is defective male» became a symbol of traditionalist views on a woman in the last third of the XX centu-ry. This definition dates back to Aristotle, and its medieval form «The wom-an is a failed man (mas occasionatus)» goes back to scholastic philosophy. Nevertheless, at the level of church doctrine, a woman was allotted a place, although subordinate, but still very honorable. With Z. Freud, the matter is not so much about a woman’s biological inferiority as about her feeling of her biological inferiority. In 1967, the «SCUM Manifesto» by V. Solanas appeared, where the cartoonized misogynistic stereotypes are turned against men. It contained the polemic definition «The male is an incomplete fe-male». However, the description of men in the manifesto is not just a nega-tive image of a woman by Freud or in misogynic writings of the past. In the eyes of Solanas men are source of all social evil and almost even universal evil. Therefore, the manifesto can be read as a pamphlet not only on the misogenetic tradition, but also on radical feminism. It is exactly in this way that the opponents of feminism use the manifesto, considering almost the entire feminist movement as «feminazi».


Gender stereotypes; radical feminism; SCUM Manifesto; Aristotle; Thomas Aquinas; Z. Freud; A. Jeannière; V. Solanas.

DOI: DOI: 10.31249/hoc/2020.04.03

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