The concept of ‘Russophobia’ was introduced by British radicals in 1836. In Germany 1830–1840 s, the ‘Russophobia’ debate took on a much clearer ideological connotation than it was in England. The dividing line was between democrats and national liberals, on the one hand, and conservatives, on the other; and the image of Russia was very different for both. The following words were used as synonyms for ‘Russophobia’: Russenhaß (hatred of Russians), Russen-Scheu and Russenfurcht (fear of Russians), Russenfeindschaft (hostility towards Russians), Russophagie (Russophagy), Russenfresserei (Russian-eating). First two words appeared during the Polish uprising of 1830–1831 and were usually used in connection with the Polish question. In the overwhelming majority of cases, the above designations were encountered in a foreign policy context and referred not to Russians as a nation, but to the Russian autocratic state. After the Crimean War, the topic of ‘Russophobia’ in the liberal and conservative press fades into the background. The French threat is highlighted; “Russian-eaters / Russophobes” are now called Democrats-Republicans, many of whom ended up in exile. Since the Eastern Crisis in the late 1870 s, the bulk of references to ‘Russophobia’ in the German press have been associated with Anglo-Russian relations, and the word ‘Russian-eating’ is practically out of use.
Political language; national phobias; Russian-German relations; Heinrich Karl Hoffmann; H. Heine; G. Herweg; J. Froebel; S.L. Borkheim.